Many claim that there is a necessary connection between morality and religion, such that, without religion (in particular, without God or gods)there is no morality, i.e., no right and wrong behaviour.Ý Although there are related claims that religion is necessary to motivate and guide people to behave in morally good way, most take the claim of the necessary connection between morality and religion to mean that right and wrong come from the commands of God (or the gods).Ý This view of morality is known as Divine Command Theory.Ý The upshot is that an action is right -- orobligatory -- if God command we do it, wrong if God commands we refrain fromdoing it, and morally permissible if God does not command that it not bedone.
Against this background, my purpose in this paper is to use a powerful classical perspective on the role of culture in mediating our moral experience and development to highlight a difficult human problem. I then proceed to sketch out what might be called a classical American response to this problem, a response, strongly associated with John Dewey, that gives pride of place to educating institutions. While this response is not, to my mind, as compelling as the problem it addresses, I conclude by suggesting that, despite its possible shortcomings, we should avoid prematurely dismissing it. I turn now to the characterization of the problem.
Thus, Jerusalem and Athens speak with one voice on the question of the role of culture in the moral life: culture is enormously powerful, tending to shape individual human beings in its image. Embedded in this view is a sharp critique of those who hold that "moral education", understood as formal classes designed to promote moral growth, has the power to nurture moral attitudes, dispositions, and sensibilities that improve on what day-to-day life in the culture encourages. How quickly, says Socrates, will the learning acquired at the hands of a teacher dissolve in the face of the allure and the threats presented by the crowd (the culture!). Do not, then, expect much help from courses in ethics designed to stimulate moral growth; and do not expect much from listening to, and even being temporarily moved by, the stirring insights of a moral sage. Such influences do not amount to very much so long as they are incoherent with the moral messages being forcefully and continuously communicated by the cultural environment.
A related epistemological moral argument contends that our the existence of objective moral values entails that God exists. Other moral arguments include the prudential moral argument, which claims that we should believe in both God and an so that fear of judgment after death will deter us from committing immoral acts. (Belief in an afterlife is held to be necessary because consistent judgment clearly does not occur before death, and belief in a just God is necessary to ensure that the good are rewarded and the evil punished in the afterlife.)
professional essay on Justifying Moral Claims
"One of the more dramatic debating maneuver used by Christian apologists against atheists is to argue that atheists can provide no objective reason for not raping people. This startling claim follows from the apologists' wider claim that atheists can provide no objective moral reasons for anything. In this paper I will examine both claims in context of the debate between atheism and theism."
Moral Relativism Essay Examples - New York essay
Wow! What an broad-reaching, informative, and fact-filled essay this is. Thanks for providing so much thought-provoking information on parallels between moral disengagement regarding governmental aggression and moral disengagement re: family violence.
The present essay is a defense of a view called moral ..
Moral arguments for God's existence may be defined as that family of arguments in the history of western philosophical theology having claims about the character of moral thought and experience in their premises and affirmations of the existence of God in their conclusions.